With VoIP, you use an IP network through an ADSL Internet connection or other, to make or receive calls to / from terrestrial PSTN. You can even talk to people with a landline number using your computer, for example using the SkypeIn and SkypeOut service. PSTN includes telephone numbers and IP networks have IP addresses. How these two work together?
Answer: The answer is address translation. Your computer or VoIP device connected to the Internet has an IP address assigned to it. When you call a person on a fixed PSTN phone, your call is forwarded to the PSTN network via the telephone number of the person you call. And vice versa.
Simple VoIP requires very little equipment. More advanced communication Voice over IP requires more sophisticated equipment. What is the equipment for VoIP?
Common VoIP Hardware Devices
IP Phones - Special Phones for VoIP
What is an ATA?
What The Lights On Your Phone Adapter (ATA) Mean
What is a Router? - The Functions of a PBX